China Market

China, located at the east of Asia, occupies a total land area of 9.6 million square kilometers, third only in size to Russia and Canada. China is a high populated country in the world and its population reached 1.3 billion in early 2005. The density is 140.1 persons per sq km. The current age structure is relatively balanced, as 70.3% of the total population is between the age of 15 and 64 (male 469,328,664; female 443,248,860), 22.3% of that is between the age of 0 and 14, and people with 65 years old and above only occupies 7.5%.

 

To save its stagnant economy, China government dedicated so much effort to reform its economic system and political framework in last several decades. In the late 1970s, the Chinese government began transferring its Soviet-style central plan economy to a market oriented economic system. For an instance, the Government advocated restructuring the old economic system and privatizing public capital. The reform successfully slimmed down the unwieldy public-owned corporations. The Chinese leadership also realized the importance of commerce and technology development. Therefore, the China government intensifies its effort to develop the infrastructures all over the country, in particular the coastal cities and provinces. To stimulate its economic growth, China government actively develops its global and local economic partnerships, and signs enormous unilateral and bilateral agreements. Nowadays, China’s international position is acknowledged by many countries. Based on the purchasing power parity (PPP) measurement, China was ranked as the second largest economy developer behind the U.S. in 2003. According to 2004 CIA World Factbook, it indicates that, in 2003, China’s GDP was $6.449 trillion and the real growth rate of GDP was 9.1%. Even though the GDP was high, the GDP per capita was still low, which was $5,000. About 10% (2001) of population live below poverty line. If the GDP is composited by sectors, about 51.7% of GDP was from industry and construction, 14.5% from agriculture and 33.8% from services (2002).

 
 

Transport

Railways:

total: 70,058 km
standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (18,668 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines
dual gauge: 22,640 km (not included in total) (2003)

 

Highways:

total: 1,402,698 km
paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)

 

In many cities, railways and expressways are two main transport arteries. Guangdong Province is the one with remarkable achievement on its transport development. Guang Zhou is the capital city of Guangdong Province. The regional transport network is like a spider net starting from Guang Zhou to other neighbour cities, like Shen Zhen, Zhu Hai, Yun Fu, Qing Yuan, Fo Shan, Kai Ping, Shan Tou, etc.

 
 

The existing highway expresses include:

 

National Highway Routes:

Route 105, 106 and 107: connecting areas in the north and northeast with Guang Zhou while Routes 105 and 107 are extended to link up with Zhu Hai (珠海) and Shen Zhen in the south respectively.

 

Route 321 and 324: an east-west corridor connecting Shan Tou (汕頭) in the east and Yun Fu (云浮) in the west

 

Route 205 and 325: serving the north-east and south-west regions respectively

 

Regional Highway Routes:

Guangzhou-Shenzhen Expressway (廣深高速公路), Guangzhou-Zhuhai East Line (廣珠東綫高速公路) - part of the Beijing-Zhuhai line (京珠綫), Guangzhou-Foshan Expressway (廣佛高速公路), Guangzhou-Qingyuan Expressway (廣清高速公路) serving the Guangdong Province. Other expressways include Shenzhen-Shantou Expressway (深汕高速公路) - Tongsan (Eastern Section) line (同三東綫), Western Coastal Expressway (西部沿海高速公路), Foshan-Kaiping Expressway (佛开高速公路), etc.

 

The existing railway network include:

Beijing-Guangzhou line (京廣鐵路), Guangzhou-Kowloon line (廣九鐵路), Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou line (廣梅汕鐵路), Beijing-Kowloon line (京九鐵路) and Sanshui-Maoming line (三茂鐵路).

 

Table Regional and Provincial Transport Fixed Capital Investments (November 2004)

 

Region

Total

Road Construction

Ferry Construction

Coastal Construction

Other Construction

Total

  46,143,562

  41,757,536

   567,703

   2,472,476

  1,345,847

Eastern 东部地区

  21,373,530

  17,644,939

   227,545

   2,472,476

  1,028,570

Central中部地区

   5,019,621

   4,667,652

   190,617

      -

     61,352

Western西部地区

   9,750,411

   9,444,945

   149,541

      -

     55,925

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bei Jing 北京

     71,479

    371,479

      -

      -

       -

Tian Jing 天津

    382,802

    195,553

      -

    187,249

       -

Hei Bei 河北

  1,825,206

   1,619,091

      -

    195,358

     10,757

Shan Xi 山西

  1,613,807

   1,613,807

      -

      -

       -

Nei Meng Gu 内蒙古

  2,018,654

   2,016,988

     1,666

      -

       -

Liao Ning 辽宁

  1,217,060

    765,516

      -

    430,490

     21,054

Ji Lin 吉林

  1,183,294

  1,181,894

     1,400

      -

       -

Hei Long Jiang 黑龙江

    893,050

    866,400

    26,650

      -

       -

Shang Hai 上海

  2,416,118

    903,381

     9,376

    671,079

     832,282

Jiang Su 江苏

  3,984,528

   3,795,625

   130,134

     58,769

       -

Zhe Jian 浙江

  3,709,992

   3,359,842

    58,344

    189,295

     102,511

An Hui 安徽

  1,575,045

   1,536,834

    21,896

       -

      16,315

Fu Jian 福建

  1,400,600

   1,303,652

      -

     93,272

       3,676

Jiang Xi 江西

  1,441,054

   1,423,592

    17,342

       -

        120

Shang Dong 山东

  1,955,530

   1,806,922

     3,000

    142,640

       2,968

He Nian河南

  3,095,702

   3,093,099

     2,603

       -

       -

Hu Bei 湖北

  1,896,914

   1,699,043

    53,161

       -

     144,710

Hu Nan 湖南

  1,302,101

   1,235,995

    65,899

       -

         207

Guang Dong 广东

  2,999,531

   2,558,925

    15,759

    420,083

       4,764

Guang Xi 广西

  1,016,983

    886,558

    10,932

     72,654

      46,839

Hai Nan 海南

     93,701

     78,395

      -

     11,587

       3,719

Chong Qing 重庆

  1,182,984

   1,111,948

    40,582

       -

      30,454

Si Chuan 四川

  1,698,150

   1,489,922

    95,869

       -

     112,359

Gui Zhou 贵州

    913,742

    908,212

     5,100

       -

         430

Yun Nian 云南

  1,458,392

   1,454,347

     3,849

       -

         196

Xi Zang 西藏

    326,529

    323,192

      -

       -

       3,337

Shan Xi 陕西

  1,538,160

   1,532,722

      968

       -

       4,470

Gan Su 甘肃

    901,478

    894,066

     3,173

       -

       4,239

Qing Hai 青海

    393,623

    393,183

      -

       -

        440

Ning Xia 宁夏

    331,082

    331,082

      -

       -

       -

Xin Jiang 新疆

  1,006,271

  1,006,271

      -

       -

       -

 
 

(Source: 2004年11月交通固定资产投资完成情况, 中国交通网站 2005-02-23 http://www.iicc.ac.cn/tongjizl/zhongguojtsj/t20050223_15273.htm)

 

Reference:

 

IntReference: ernational Data Base, U.S. Bureau of the Census, http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbagg

 

2004 CIA World Factbook, http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/china/china_people.html

 

2004 CIA World Factbook, http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/china/china_transportation.html

 

Regional and Hong Kong's Transport Network Planning Framework, http://sc.info.gov.hk/gb/www.info.gov.hk/hk2030/hk2030content/wpapers/wpaper_21/English/e_wpa per21.htm

 
 

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