China, located at the east of Asia, occupies a total land area of 9.6 million square kilometers, third only in size to Russia and Canada. China is a high populated country in the world and its population reached 1.3 billion in early 2005. The density is 140.1 persons per sq km. The current age structure is relatively balanced, as 70.3% of the total population is between the age of 15 and 64 (male 469,328,664; female 443,248,860), 22.3% of that is between the age of 0 and 14, and people with 65 years old and above only occupies 7.5%.
To save its stagnant economy, China government dedicated so much effort to reform its economic system and political framework in last several decades. In the late 1970s, the Chinese government began transferring its Soviet-style central plan economy to a market oriented economic system. For an instance, the Government advocated restructuring the old economic system and privatizing public capital. The reform successfully slimmed down the unwieldy public-owned corporations. The Chinese leadership also realized the importance of commerce and technology development. Therefore, the China government intensifies its effort to develop the infrastructures all over the country, in particular the coastal cities and provinces. To stimulate its economic growth, China government actively develops its global and local economic partnerships, and signs enormous unilateral and bilateral agreements. Nowadays, China’s international position is acknowledged by many countries. Based on the purchasing power parity (PPP) measurement, China was ranked as the second largest economy developer behind the U.S. in 2003. According to 2004 CIA World Factbook, it indicates that, in 2003, China’s GDP was $6.449 trillion and the real growth rate of GDP was 9.1%. Even though the GDP was high, the GDP per capita was still low, which was $5,000. About 10% (2001) of population live below poverty line. If the GDP is composited by sectors, about 51.7% of GDP was from industry and construction, 14.5% from agriculture and 33.8% from services (2002).
Railways total: 70,058 km
- standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (18,668 km electrified)
- narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines
- dual gauge: 22,640 km (not included in total) (2003)
Highways total: 1,402,698 km
- paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)
- unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)
In many cities, railways and expressways are two main transport arteries. Guangdong Province is the one with remarkable achievement on its transport development. Guang Zhou is the capital city of Guangdong Province. The regional transport network is like a spider net starting from Guang Zhou to other neighbour cities, like Shen Zhen, Zhu Hai, Yun Fu, Qing Yuan, Fo Shan, Kai Ping, Shan Tou, etc.
- Route 105, 106 and 107: connecting areas in the north and northeast with Guang Zhou while Routes 105 and 107 are extended to link up with Zhu Hai (珠海) and Shen Zhen in the south respectively.
- Route 321 and 324: an east-west corridor connecting Shan Tou (汕頭) in the east and Yun Fu (云浮) in the west.
- Route 205 and 325: serving the north-east and south-west regions respectively.In many cities, railways and expressways are two main transport arteries.
- Guangdong Province is the one with remarkable achievement on its transport development. Guang Zhou is the capital city of Guangdong Province. The regional transport network is like a spider net starting from Guang Zhou to other neighbour cities, like Shen Zhen, Zhu Hai, Yun Fu, Qing Yuan, Fo Shan, Kai Ping, Shan Tou, etc.
Regional Highway Routes
Guangzhou-Shenzhen Expressway (廣深高速公路), Guangzhou-Zhuhai East Line (廣珠東綫高速公路) – part of the Beijing-Zhuhai line (京珠綫), Guangzhou-Foshan Expressway (廣佛高速公路), Guangzhou-Qingyuan Expressway (廣清高速公路) serving the Guangdong Province. Other expressways include Shenzhen-Shantou Expressway (深汕高速公路) – Tongsan (Eastern Section) line (同三東綫), Western Coastal Expressway (西部沿海高速公路), Foshan-Kaiping Expressway (佛开高速公路), etc.
The existing railway network includes:
Beijing-Guangzhou line (京廣鐵路), Guangzhou-Kowloon line (廣九鐵路), Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou line (廣梅汕鐵路), Beijing-Kowloon line (京九鐵路) and Sanshui-Maoming line (三茂鐵路).
Table Regional and Provincial Transport Fixed Capital Investments (November 2004)
|Region||Total||Road Construction||Ferry Construction||Coastal Construction||Other Construction|
|Bei Jing 北京||71,479||371,479||–||–||–|
|Tian Jing 天津||382,802||195,553||–||187,249||–|
|Hei Bei 河北||1,825,206||1,619,091||–||195,358||10,757|
|Shan Xi 山西||1,613,807||1,613,807||–||–||–|
|Nei Meng Gu 内蒙古||2,018,654||2,016,988||1,666||–||–|
|Liao Ning 辽宁||1,217,060||765,516||–||430,490||21,054|
|Ji Lin 吉林||1,183,294||1,181,894||1,400||–||–|
|Hei Long Jiang 黑龙江||893,050||866,400||26,650||–||–|
|Shang Hai 上海||2,416,118||903,381||9,376||671,079||832,282|
|Jiang Su 江苏||3,984,528||3,795,625||130,134||58,769||–|
|Zhe Jian 浙江||3,709,992||3,359,842||58,344||189,295||102,511|
|An Hui 安徽||1,575,045||1,536,834||21,896||–||16,315|
|Fu Jian 福建||1,400,600||1,303,652||–||93,272||3,676|
|Jiang Xi 江西||1,441,054||1,423,592||17,342||–||120|
|Shang Dong 山东||1,955,530||1,806,922||3,000||142,640||2,968|
|Hu Bei 湖北||1,896,914||1,699,043||53,161||–||144,710|
|Hu Nan 湖南||1,302,101||1,235,995||65,899||–||207|
|Guang Dong 广东||2,999,531||2,558,925||15,759||420,083||4,764|
|Guang Xi 广西||1,016,983||886,558||10,932||72,654||46,839|
|Hai Nan 海南||93,701||78,395||–||11,587||3,719|
|Chong Qing 重庆||1,182,984||1,111,948||40,582||–||30,454|
|Si Chuan 四川||1,698,150||1,489,922||95,869||–||112,359|
|Gui Zhou 贵州||913,742||908,212||5,100||–||430|
|Yun Nian 云南||1,458,392||1,454,347||3,849||–||196|
|Xi Zang 西藏||326,529||323,192||–||–||3,337|
|Shan Xi 陕西||1,538,160||1,532,722||968||–||4,470|
|Gan Su 甘肃||901,478||894,066||3,173||–||4,239|
|Qing Hai 青海||393,623||393,183||–||–||440|
|Ning Xia 宁夏||331,082||331,082||–||–||–|
|Xin Jiang 新疆||1,006,271||1,006,271||–||–||–|
(Source: 2004年11月交通固定资产投资完成情况, 中国交通网站 2005-02-23 http://www.iicc.ac.cn/tongjizl/zhongguojtsj/t20050223_15273.htm
- IntReference: International Data Base, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
- 2004 CIA World Factbook,
- 2004 CIA World Factbook,
- Regional and Hong Kong’s Transport Network Planning Framework,