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Global Business Development – China
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Global Business Development – China

china

CHINA MARKET

China, located at the east of Asia, occupies a total land area of 9.6 million square kilometers, third only in size to Russia and Canada. China is a high populated country in the world and its population reached 1.3 billion in early 2005. The density is 140.1 persons per sq km. The current age structure is relatively balanced, as 70.3% of the total population is between the age of 15 and 64 (male 469,328,664; female 443,248,860), 22.3% of that is between the age of 0 and 14, and people with 65 years old and above only occupies 7.5%.

 

To save its stagnant economy, China government dedicated so much effort to reform its economic system and political framework in last several decades. In the late 1970s, the Chinese government began transferring its Soviet-style central plan economy to a market oriented economic system. For an instance, the Government advocated restructuring the old economic system and privatizing public capital. The reform successfully slimmed down the unwieldy public-owned corporations. The Chinese leadership also realized the importance of commerce and technology development. Therefore, the China government intensifies its effort to develop the infrastructures all over the country, in particular the coastal cities and provinces. To stimulate its economic growth, China government actively develops its global and local economic partnerships, and signs enormous unilateral and bilateral agreements. Nowadays, China’s international position is acknowledged by many countries. Based on the purchasing power parity (PPP) measurement, China was ranked as the second largest economy developer behind the U.S. in 2003. According to 2004 CIA World Factbook, it indicates that, in 2003, China’s GDP was $6.449 trillion and the real growth rate of GDP was 9.1%. Even though the GDP was high, the GDP per capita was still low, which was $5,000. About 10% (2001) of population live below poverty line. If the GDP is composited by sectors, about 51.7% of GDP was from industry and construction, 14.5% from agriculture and 33.8% from services (2002).

 

Railways total: 70,058 km

    • standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (18,668 km electrified)
    • narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines
    • dual gauge: 22,640 km (not included in total) (2003)

 

Highways total: 1,402,698 km

    • paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)
    • unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)

In many cities, railways and expressways are two main transport arteries. Guangdong Province is the one with remarkable achievement on its transport development. Guang Zhou is the capital city of Guangdong Province. The regional transport network is like a spider net starting from Guang Zhou to other neighbour cities, like Shen Zhen, Zhu Hai, Yun Fu, Qing Yuan, Fo Shan, Kai Ping, Shan Tou, etc.

National Highway Routes
    • Route 105, 106 and 107: connecting areas in the north and northeast with Guang Zhou while Routes 105 and 107 are extended to link up with Zhu Hai (珠海) and Shen Zhen in the south respectively.
    • Route 321 and 324: an east-west corridor connecting Shan Tou (汕頭) in the east and Yun Fu (云浮) in the west.
    • Route 205 and 325: serving the north-east and south-west regions respectively.In many cities, railways and expressways are two main transport arteries.
    • Guangdong Province is the one with remarkable achievement on its transport development. Guang Zhou is the capital city of Guangdong Province. The regional transport network is like a spider net starting from Guang Zhou to other neighbour cities, like Shen Zhen, Zhu Hai, Yun Fu, Qing Yuan, Fo Shan, Kai Ping, Shan Tou, etc.

 

Regional Highway Routes

Guangzhou-Shenzhen Expressway (廣深高速公路), Guangzhou-Zhuhai East Line (廣珠東綫高速公路) – part of the Beijing-Zhuhai line (京珠綫), Guangzhou-Foshan Expressway (廣佛高速公路), Guangzhou-Qingyuan Expressway (廣清高速公路) serving the Guangdong Province. Other expressways include Shenzhen-Shantou Expressway (深汕高速公路) – Tongsan (Eastern Section) line (同三東綫), Western Coastal Expressway (西部沿海高速公路), Foshan-Kaiping Expressway (佛开高速公路), etc.

 

The existing railway network includes:

Beijing-Guangzhou line (京廣鐵路), Guangzhou-Kowloon line (廣九鐵路), Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou line (廣梅汕鐵路), Beijing-Kowloon line (京九鐵路) and Sanshui-Maoming line (三茂鐵路).

 

 

Table Regional and Provincial Transport Fixed Capital Investments (November 2004)

 

Region Total Road Construction Ferry Construction Coastal Construction Other Construction
Total 46,143,562 41,757,536 567,703 2,472,476 1,345,847
Eastern 东部地区 21,373,530 17,644,939 227,545 2,472,476 1,028,570
Central中部地区 5,019,621 4,667,652 190,617 61,352
Western西部地区 9,750,411 9,444,945 149,541 55,925
Bei Jing 北京 71,479 371,479
Tian Jing 天津 382,802 195,553 187,249
Hei Bei 河北 1,825,206 1,619,091 195,358 10,757
Shan Xi 山西 1,613,807 1,613,807
Nei Meng Gu 内蒙古 2,018,654 2,016,988 1,666
Liao Ning 辽宁 1,217,060 765,516 430,490 21,054
Ji Lin 吉林 1,183,294 1,181,894 1,400
Hei Long Jiang 黑龙江 893,050 866,400 26,650
Shang Hai 上海 2,416,118 903,381 9,376 671,079 832,282
Jiang Su 江苏 3,984,528 3,795,625 130,134 58,769
Zhe Jian 浙江 3,709,992 3,359,842 58,344 189,295 102,511
An Hui 安徽 1,575,045 1,536,834 21,896 16,315
Fu Jian 福建 1,400,600 1,303,652 93,272 3,676
Jiang Xi 江西 1,441,054 1,423,592 17,342 120
Shang Dong 山东 1,955,530 1,806,922 3,000 142,640 2,968
He Nian河南 3,095,702 3,093,099 2,603
Hu Bei 湖北 1,896,914 1,699,043 53,161 144,710
Hu Nan 湖南 1,302,101 1,235,995 65,899 207
Guang Dong 广东 2,999,531 2,558,925 15,759 420,083 4,764
Guang Xi 广西 1,016,983 886,558 10,932 72,654 46,839
Hai Nan 海南 93,701 78,395 11,587 3,719
Chong Qing 重庆 1,182,984 1,111,948 40,582 30,454
Si Chuan 四川 1,698,150 1,489,922 95,869 112,359
Gui Zhou 贵州 913,742 908,212 5,100 430
Yun Nian 云南 1,458,392 1,454,347 3,849 196
Xi Zang 西藏 326,529 323,192 3,337
Shan Xi 陕西 1,538,160 1,532,722 968 4,470
Gan Su 甘肃 901,478 894,066 3,173 4,239
Qing Hai 青海 393,623 393,183 440
Ning Xia 宁夏 331,082 331,082
Xin Jiang 新疆 1,006,271 1,006,271

(Source: 2004年11月交通固定资产投资完成情况, 中国交通网站 2005-02-23 http://www.iicc.ac.cn/tongjizl/zhongguojtsj/t20050223_15273.htm

 

References

    1. IntReference: International Data Base, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
      http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbagg
    1. 2004 CIA World Factbook,
      http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/china/china_people.html
    1. 2004 CIA World Factbook,
      http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb2004/china/china_transportation.html
  1. Regional and Hong Kong’s Transport Network Planning Framework,
    http://sc.info.gov.hk/gb/www.info.gov.hk/hk2030/hk2030content/wpapers/wpaper_21/English/e_wpa per21.htm